The Two Pardons of Basil Manly, Sr.

The Two Pardons of Basil Manly, Sr.

by Ron F. Hale

Two pardons marked the life of Basil Manly, Sr.

One pardon was of a spiritual nature, while the other legal. The first occurred in a cornfield and the other in the White House.

Basil Manly, Sr. was born near Pittsboro, North Carolina, on January 28, 1798 to Captain John Basil Manly (1742-1824) and his wife Elizabeth Maultsby Manly (1768-1855).  John Basil Manly rose to the rank of Captain in the Revolutionary War and became a successful planter and owner of the Oak Mount Plantation. Captain Manly eventually owned twenty-five slaves on his burgeoning post-war estate.

Basil Manly, Sr. became one of the most influential leaders in southern education, politics, and Baptist work. By the time of the Civil War, Manly owned more than 40 slaves and was a staunch proslavery activist. [[1]]

Historian Larry E. Tise lists Basil Manly, Sr. and Jr. along with 273 other American proslavery clergymen (from the north and south) in his unprecedented book on the American defense of slavery. Tise painstakingly shows how the American proslavery movement began in New England and how a Southern defense of slavery or a systematic critique of abolitionism was almost non-existent until 1835. [[2]] Men like Charles Hodge, Richard Furman, James Pettigru Boyce, John L. Dagg, Robert L. Dabney, and George Whitefield are listed as authors of books, pamphlets, articles, or written sermons in defense of slavery. [[3]This article sheds more light on the 275 pro-slavery clergymen.(link)

The Spiritual Pardon

Manly’s first pardon is mentioned in the book Chaplain to the Confederacy: Basil Manly and Baptist Life in the Old South, as the author, A. James Fuller, describes the cornfield conversion of young Basil Manly Sr. as a family slave led him to Jesus in a sinner’s prayer:

One day in 1814, while the sixteen-year-old was walking alone in a cornfield in Orange County, North Carolina, near the Bingham Academy where he attended school, his mind turned toward spiritual things.  His mother, at home on the family farm near Pittsboro in neighboring Chatham County, had been converted, baptized, and welcomed as a member of the local Baptist church.  Her influence on her son brought religious conviction, as acceptance of the Christian life seemed to be the way of redemption from the guilt and spiritual distress he found himself in.

Walking through the corn, weighing heaven and hell in the balance of his mind, Manly was overcome emotionally, and tears soon coursed down his cheeks.  Then, from distance, he heard a voice, and began to move toward it.  As he drew closer, Manly recognized the voice as that of an old black man, and overheard the prayer of the slave pleading for the Lord to speak to “Mas Baz.”  Young Manly was overwhelmed, and fell to his knees beside the old man, who helped him pray.  Their weeping and praying soon brought other slaves and the white members of the family with whom Manly was boarding to the scene.  The tears of spiritual angst soon became tears of joy, as the young man and his new Christian family, white and black, free and slave, celebrated his conversion.  From that day forward, Basil Manly was a Christian. [[4]]

The Legal Pardon

Manly’s second pardon came after the Civil War.  This pardon was granted by President Andrew Johnson on September 12, 1865, after Manly’s role in creating the Confederacy, for he was chaplain both to the Secession Convention of the State of Alabama and at the Inauguration of Jefferson Davis as President of the Confederate States of America. Manly helped draw up Alabama’s Confederate Constitution in January 1861. [[5]]

President Johnson signed a full pardon of offenses committed under rebellion for Basil Manly, Sr. of Tuscaloosa, Alabama.  Included in Manly’s offenses was the prayer at Jefferson Davis’ inauguration as the President of the Confederacy in February 1861.   As part of a special group of ex-confederates who could not sign the typical oath of allegiance, Manly needed a presidential pardon.

Manly agreed to five terms in regaining his United States citizenship. Never again using slave labor was one precondition. [[6]]

The Role of His Theology

Basil Manly, Sr. was president of the University of Alabama for 18 years beginning in 1837. [[7]] The Encyclopedia of Alabama seeks to balance Manly’s defense of the institution of slavery, while encouraging slave-owners to treat enslaved workers fairly and provide for their physical, spiritual, and family needs. The article asserts that Manly sought to reconcile the tension of his views … “through his Calvinist theology, with its doctrines of duty and acceptance of one’s place in God’s divine plan.” [[8]]

Before his death on December 21, 1868, Manly accomplished two important things.  First, his enduring dream of establishing the first seminary for Baptists in the South came true, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary.  As the first president of the seminary’s board of trustees and fundraiser, he worked hard to re-open the seminary after the war; he moved to Greenville, South Carolina, and lived with his son in 1867, who was a founding professor at the school.

Finally, at the age of 67, he completed the terms of his oath of allegiance and Basil Manly, Sr. soon died as a citizen of the United States of America.

Questions to Consider

The life of Basil Manly, Sr. presents several questions to ponder. Was he a man bound by the biases and geographic mind-set of his day? Of this era, do we have moral measurements to help us discern vice and virtue?

Dr. Timothy George advocates the following support for Manly’s reputation:

Manly was, of course, a child of his times as well as a shaper of his times. Like many Southern theologians of his day, he was blind to the horrible evils of slavery. [[9]]

Contrariwise, by 1835, the Sandy Creek Baptist Association in North Carolina officially stood against the practice of slavery and asked their congregations “to exclude members who will not abandon the practice, after the first and second admonition.” [[10]]

The Sandy Creekers were led by farmer-preachers and their Baptist congregations consisted of subsistence farmers, yet they chose the higher moral ground twenty-five years before the Civil War. [[11]]  Can we conclude that if one group of Baptists (in the South) could rise above the prevailing prejudices of their day then all Baptists could have risen to a loftier level of love?

In contrast to the slave-holding elites, the much poorer and less-educated Sandy Creek Baptists made two major moves in the mid-1800’s: they moved away from a deterministic theology that kept people “in their place” and they moved away from chattel slavery.

In dealing with the “elephant in the room,” I must ask, could Manly and others within his theological stream rise above their reformed paradigm in dealing with slavery? As noted earlier, it was those who knew Manly best wrote in the Encylopedia of Alabama that he sought to reconcile these views, “through his Calvinist theology, with its doctrines of duty and acceptance of one’s place in God’s divine plan.”

Distinguished professor of history at Auburn University, Dr. Wayne Flynt, wrote, “As Baptists prospered on plantations, they extolled the positive benefits of slavery. Strict Calvinists, many of whom owned slaves themselves, led the assault on the antislavery forces.”[[12]]  Leading Calvinist leader Richard Furman and longtime pastor of the Charleston Baptist Church suggested that slavery was part of “the order of things, which the Divine government has established … .”[[13]] In 1800, The Charleston Baptist Association assured its members that the “scriptural doctrine on the station and duties of servants, is clear and decided … this doctrine required of slaves, faithfulness, submission, quietude, and obedience.”[14]

This frame of mind was first adopted in Puritan New England. Historian Douglas Harper writes of the early Puritans in New England who saw themselves as God’s Elect and how Cotton Mather (1663-1728) told blacks they were the “miserable children of Adam and Noah”, for “they were enslaved because they had sinned against God and that God, not their masters had enslaved them.”[[15]] Pastor-theologian Jonathan Edwards defended the institution of slavery his entire ministry; at his death in 1758, his slaves were not emancipated.

Culpability and Choice 

The Manly family were members of the powerful, wealthy, and very educated antebellum South and this plantation class fought hard to maintain their way of life. Once it was “gone with the wind” they had the money, education, and influence over media outlets to soften their personal responsibility and culpability in the cause of the Civil War.

Manly’s cornfield conversion reveals his awareness that the ground at the foot of the cross was level. His fair treatment of slaves underscores his conclusion that these were humans made in the image of God. Even so, there is no law that prevents gratitude for the good and noble even in the presence of grievous error.

Between his cornfield pardon and his presidential pardon, Manly Sr. was one of the few men in the South with the influence to change the course of American history. Score upon score of slave and soldier could not escape the consequences of that choice.


© Ron F. Hale, March 11, 2018

[1] http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/h-1182

[2] Larry E. Tise, Proslavery: A History of the Defense of Slavery in America, 1701-1840, (Athens: University Press of Georgia, 1987), 308.

[3] Ibid. 363-366.

[4]  A. James Fuller, Chaplain to the Confederacy: Basil Manly and Baptist Life in the Old South, Louisiana State University Press, 2000, 11-12.

[5] Wayne Flynt, Alabama Baptists: Southern Baptists in the Heart of Dixie (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1998), 110.

[6] http://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/4335

[7] Wayne Flynt, Alabama Baptists: Southern Baptists in the Heart of Dixie,19.

[8] http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1182

[9] http://d3pi8hptl0qhh4.cloudfront.net/media/publications/sbjt/sbjt_1999spring7.pdf

[10] http://www.sandycreekba.com/838494

[11] http://www.northcarolinahistory.org/commentary/112/entry

[12] Flynt, Wayne, Alabama Baptists: Southern Baptists in the Heart of Dixie, 43-44.

[13] Furman, Expositions of the Views of the Baptists, p.8.

[14] Rachel N. Klein, Unification of a Slave State: The Rise of the Planter Class in the South Carolina Backcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1990), 287.

[15] Douglas Harper, http://slavenorth.com/slavenorth.htm

 

12 thoughts on “The Two Pardons of Basil Manly, Sr.

  1. This is a hard subject, especially since the SBC was originally formed to allow slave owners to be appointed as missionaries, something the SBC repented of later. And both Dr. Flowers and I serve as ministers of the gospel within that denomination. At the same time this article exposes the dangerous slippery slope that hard determinism (including Calvinism) cannot avoid. According to Calvinism all human conditions and behaviors were predestined by God (chosen by God according to His own secret counsel) therefore they are God’s will.This includes racism, slavery, homosexuality, poverty, sickness, and every other evil, tragedy, or depraved condition known to mankind. According to Calvinism, humans are still responsible for acting according to God’s predetermined will, but since God decided and predetermined all things, He cannot escape responsibility for His actions either. God’s justice then is unjust because he holds human accountable for their actions while ignoring His own role in both desiring and causing humans to do the very things for which He condemns them.

    We really do need to drop these medieval errors of philosophy and reason from Evangelical theology. They are not required, Biblically. A far better interpretation is available to the church today in the form of Provisionism (Traditionalist theology). it is time that Baptist leave the theological baggage of the past 5 centuries behind and embrace a 21st century theology founded on the eternal truths revealed in Christ and the scriptures of the first century. We need to “reinterpret” the Bible. It has already been interpreted for us, but often wrongly so, under the influence of “reformed theology”. This does not mean that we learned nothing from the Reformation or the reformers themselves. But they were also men, imperfect, not inerrant in the conclusions they drew from God’s Word.

    Liked by 4 people

    1. Andy,
      Thanks for being the first to reply! The Gospel is the power of God unto salvation! The Holy Spirit still convicts and converts! Elaborate theo-philosophical systems do not have to be erected to guide us. You are on the right track! Blessings. Ron F. Hale

      Liked by 1 person

  2. Wow! Read this off my phone while cleaning my messy garage; this is a ‘must read’ at a computer later to click on links! History of the south and calvinism I’ve never heard before!!! Tom T

    Liked by 2 people

  3. This is a nice reminder of where determinism leads. Free Methodists get their name partly because they stood against slavery.

    They believed that men had free choices and that our choices make a difference. Calvinists deny that and use it to their advantage.

    “Hey slavery is just the way God determined things. Just ask hero Jonathan Edwards!”

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Fromoverthere — John Wesley was a champion in his push “against” slavery! He was tireless. I wish George Whitefield had listened to him. As you know Whitefield became a slave-master.

      Blessings. Ron F. Hale

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Yes indeed! And some argue that Whitefield was one of the reason that Georgia (as a colony) decided to allow slavery.

        Wesley fighting slavery. Whitefield promoting it. All from their worldview.

        Like

  4. A great example of how during times of prominent Christian leadership (Manly) going astray in obvious ways there were always examples of less known but qualified leadership (Sandy Creek) who remained loyal to the clear teaching of Scripture.

    Reformed theology, with its less literal approach to Scriptures that don’t support it, was used to justify slavery in America even though God commanded capital punishment for the kidnapping form of slavery that American slavery mainly was.

    Exodus 21:16 ESV — “Whoever steals a man and sells him, and anyone found in possession of him, shall be put to death.”

    Liked by 2 people

  5. Ron: Your writing style and research does much to elucidate history accurately. I appreciate the gifts of God that are evident by your stewardship of them. We are benefactors of your efforts.

    This is interesting:
    “Manly was, of course, a child of his times as well as a shaper of his times. Like many Southern theologians of his day, he was blind to the horrible evils of slavery. [[9]]”

    Saying that anyone was “a child of his times” is feckless. Like Mama used to ask me, “If everyone else was jumping off the bridge into the river, would you?”

    Mama knew what T. George and the rest of us know, and that is following the crowd is no excuse for stupidity or evil. Such an argument as George makes is also used to excuse Calvin’s heinous acts that include the murder or Servetus. So, the continuing appeal to that weak argument is no surprise. Calvinists impugn the ministry of the Holy Spirit of God to ascribe their forebears’ sins to “their times.” Was the Holy Spirit somehow oblivious to the sin of slavery? Or was it greedy theologians’ sin that deafened their ears to the Voice of God and blinded their eyes to the “horrible evils of slavery”?

    Further, of whose times did the Sandy Creek Baptists belong? Were they not contemporary to the Calvinists who defended slavery?

    Just waiting for the day that Southern Seminary renames its “Boyce College.” Boyce owned slaves.

    Liked by 1 person

  6. Thank you for your article. As a descendent of Basil Manly Sr., I knew nothing of his past until recently. I am sure now why that is. His support of slavery and the caste system must have been hard for my relatives to accept. Needless to say, I struggle to reconcile myself to his role in the promotion of slavery and inequality, the great stain and scourge on this nation. I doubt I will ever be reconciled. However, I feel a profound obligation to continue the struggle to right this tragically enduring wrong however best I can in my small sphere of influence.

    Liked by 1 person

  7. Lois,

    Thank you for reading and replying to my article! And thank you for having the courage to share of your family.

    Please read Jeremiah 31:29,30; Ezekiel 18: 2,3; 18:19,20

    The prophet Jeremiah is laying the ground for a new covenant where God no longer punishes one person for the sins of another or the sins of one generation on another.

    Each person is to be punished for his or her own sins.

    If you are in Christ, you are a new creature. Walk in His love, grace, and power to battle against the evil and evil forces in our world today.

    Do not walk in “condemnation” walk in His victory.

    Blessings! Ron F. Hale

    Liked by 1 person

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